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We Need Your Support. ICP's museum is open! Come visit us and our four exhibitions on view. Education programs, including public programs and ICP Talks, are continuing online.

Learn more about hours, admission, and how we are keeping you safe. Get Details. So many times I've photographed stories that show the degradation of the planet.

I had one idea to go and photograph the factories that were polluting, and to see all the deposits of garbage.

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After the recognition of the independence of Brazil under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of , he continued as King of Portugal until his death in Under the same treaty, he also became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Pedro I of Brazil , was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly independent country.

From , he served as prince regent of Portugal and later, from , as prince regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves , due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I.

In , he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire , with no real change in his authority, since he already possessed absolute powers as regent.

One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period; his reign never saw a lasting peace.

Throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain , France and Great Britain , continually intervened in Portuguese affairs.

Forced to flee to South America across the Atlantic Ocean into Brazil when troops of the Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, he found himself faced there with liberal revolts; he was compelled to return to Europe amid new conflicts.

His marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain , repeatedly conspired against her husband in favor of personal interests or those of her native Spain.

He lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, and his other son Miguel later Miguel I of Portugal led a rebellion that sought to depose him.

According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning. Notwithstanding these tribulations he left a lasting mark, especially in Brazil, where he helped to create numerous institutions and services that laid a foundation for national autonomy, and he is considered by many historians to be a true mastermind of the modern Brazilian state.

Still, he has been widely if unjustly viewed as a cartoonish figure in Portuguese-Brazilian history, accused of laziness, lack of political acumen and constant indecision, and is often portrayed as physically grotesque.

He was the second son, paternal cousin, and nephew by marriage of the future Queen Maria I , Joseph's daughter also his sister in law , and her husband also her paternal uncle , the future King Peter III.

He was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. Still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.

The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture. Like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family.

Fearing a new Iberian Union , some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably. She endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed.

Because John and Carlota were related, and because of the bride's youth she was only 10 years old at the time , the marriage required a papal dispensation.

After being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms.

It was followed immediately by a proxy marriage. An assiduous correspondence between John and Mariana at that time reveals that the absence of his sister weighed upon him and, comparing her to his young wife, he wrote, "She is very smart and has a lot of judgment, whereas you have rather little, and I like her a lot, but for all that I cannot love her equally.

Furthermore, the difference in their ages John being 17 years old made him uncomfortable and anxious. Because Carlota was so young, the marriage had not been consummated, and John wrote, "Here's to the arrival of the time when I shall play a lot with the Infanta.

The way these things go, I think six years from now. Better that she be a bit more grown up than when she came. In , Carlota gave birth to the first of nine children: Teresa, Princess of Beira.

John, in contrast, was well known for his religiosity and his attachment to absolutism. Furthermore, the year after these deaths, John became so ill that his own survival was uncertain.

He recovered, but in , he again fell ill "bleeding from the mouth and intestines", according to notes left by the chaplain of the Marquis of Marialva , who added that his spirit was always depressed.

This created a tense climate and uncertainty about his future reign. Meanwhile, the queen showed increasing signs of mental instability.

On 10 February , seventeen doctors signed a document declaring her unable to manage the kingdom, with no prospect for her condition to improve.

John was reluctant to take the reins of power, rejecting the idea of a formal regency. This opened the way for elements of the nobility to form a de facto government via a Council.

Rumors circulated that John exhibited symptoms of the same insanity, and that he might be prevented from ruling.

According to longstanding laws that guided the institution of regency, were the regent to die or become incapable for any reason, and having children of less than fourteen years which was John's situation at the time , government would be exercised by the guardians of those children or, if guardians had not been formally named, by the wife of the regent.

In John's case, that would have been a Spanish infanta. Fear, suspicion and intrigue engulfed the entire institutional framework of the nation.

At the same time, the French Revolution perplexed and horrified the reigning houses of Europe. The execution of the French former king Louis XVI on 21 January by the revolutionaries precipitated an international response.

Both treaties pledged mutual aid against revolutionary France and brought six thousand Portuguese soldiers into the War of the Pyrenees — , a campaign that began with an advance to Roussillon in France and ended in defeat with the French conquest of northeastern Spain.

This created a delicate diplomatic problem, as Portugal could not make peace with France without damaging an alliance with England that involved several overseas interests.

The Portuguese thus sought a neutrality that proved fragile and tense. After the defeat, Spain abandoned its alliance with Portugal and allied with France under the Peace of Basel.

With Britain too powerful for France to attack directly, France set its sights on Portugal. With John's refusal, neutrality became unviable.

Spain and France invaded in , setting off the War of the Oranges ; a defeated Portugal signed the Treaty of Badajoz and the subsequent Treaty of Madrid , under which it ceded territory to Spain, in particular Olivenza , and made concessions to the French over certain colonial territories.

Portugal, as the weakest player, could not avoid continued struggle. His wife, Carlota Joaquina, loyal to Spanish interests, initiated an intrigue with the objective of deposing her husband and taking power herself, an attempt that failed in This resulted in the Princess's exile from court; she resided at Queluz Palace , while the regent took up residency at Mafra Palace.

The prince regent played a desperate game with France for time. For as long as he could, he pretended an apparent submission to France, to the point of suggesting to King George III of the United Kingdom the declaration of a fictitious state of war between their countries, but he did not obey the dictates of Napoleon's Continental System a blockade against Great Britain.

A new secret treaty with the British guaranteed him help in case of an eventual flight of the royal family. The accord greatly favored the British and preserved their influence over the country, as the United Kingdom continued to make vast profits in trade with the Portuguese intercontinental empire.

It fell to Portugal only to choose between obedience to France or to England, and the hesitancy to decide firmly placed Portugal at risk of war with not merely one of these powers, but with both.

In October , news arrived that a French army was approaching, and on 16 November, a British squadron arrived in the port of Lisbon with a force of seven thousand men with orders either to escort the royal family to Brazil or, if the government surrendered to France, to attack and conquer the Portuguese capital.

The court was divided between Francophiles and Anglophiles, and after anguished consideration under pressure from both sides, John decided to accept British protection and leave for Brazil.

The invading army led by Jean-Andoche Junot advanced with some difficulty, arriving at the gates of Lisbon only on 30 November The hasty departure during a rainstorm caused havoc in Lisbon as an astonished population could not believe that their prince had abandoned them.

He wanted to speak and could not; he wanted to move and, convulsed, did not succeed in taking a step; he walked over an abyss, and envisioned a future dark and as uncertain as the ocean to which he was about to deliver himself.

Country, capital, kingdom, vassals, he was about to leave all of these suddenly, with little hope of setting eyes on them again, and all were thorns that pierced his heart.

To explain himself to the people, John ordered that posters be put up along the streets stating that his departure was unavoidable despite all efforts made to assure the integrity and peace of the kingdom.

The posters recommended that everyone remain calm, orderly and not resist the invaders, so that blood not be shed in vain. This was an imprudent decision given the dangers of a transatlantic voyage in that era, since it placed at risk the succession of the crown in case of shipwreck.

Carlota Joaquina and the infantas were on two other ships. Still, the ships were overcrowded. According to Pedreira e Costa, taking into account all of the variables, the most likely numbers fall between four and seven thousand passengers plus the crews.

Many families were separated, and even high officials failed to secure a place on the ships and were left behind. The voyage was not a tranquil one.

Several ships were in precarious condition, and overcrowding created humiliating conditions for the nobility, the majority of whom had to sleep huddled in the open in the poops.

Hygienic conditions were bad, including an epidemic of head lice. Many had failed to bring changes of clothing. Several people fell ill.

Supplies were scarce, causing rationing. Furthermore, the flotilla spent ten days nearly becalmed in the equatorial zone under a scorching heat that caused moods to turn quite sour.

The flotilla also faced two storms and was eventually dispersed near Madeira. In the middle of the voyage, Prince John changed his plans and decided to head for Salvador, Bahia , probably for political reasons.

He wanted to please the inhabitants of the colony's first capital, which had given many signs of discontent with the loss of its old status.

The ships carrying his wife and the infantas held to the original destination of Rio de Janeiro. The streets of Salvador were deserted, because the governor, the Count of Ponte, preferred to await the prince's orders before permitting the people to receive him.

Finding this attitude odd, John ordered that all could come as they wished. Britain, however, whose economy depended in great part on maritime commerce, and for whom the Portuguese and Brazilian monarchy was now something of a protectorate, was the most direct beneficiary.

Salvador spent a month in commemorations of the presence of the court and tried to seduce the court into making it the new seat of the kingdom. The residents offered to construct a luxurious palace as a home for the royal family, but John declined and continued his voyage, having already announced to various nations his intention to make his capital at Rio de Janeiro.

His ship entered Guanabara Bay on 7 March, where he met the infantas and other members of his entourage whose ships had arrived earlier.

On the 8th, the whole court finally disembarked to encounter a city adorned to receive them with nine days of uninterrupted celebrations.

If so great were the motives of sorrow and distress, no less were the causes of comfort and pleasure: a new order of things was going to begin this part of the southern hemisphere.

The design of the Empire of Brazil could already be considered in place, and eagerly wished the powerful hand of our lord the Prince Regent to cast the first stone of future greatness, prosperity and power of the new empire.

With a court, the essential apparatus of a sovereign state became inevitable: the senior civil, religious, and military officials, aristocrats and liberal professionals, skilled artisans, and public servants.

For many scholars, the transfer of the court to Rio began the establishment of the modern Brazilian state and constituted Brazil's first step toward true independence.

All the characteristics of that [colonial] regime disappeared, the only remaining part of the colonial situation was to be under a foreign government.

One after another, the old workings of colonial administration were abolished and replaced by those of a sovereign nation.

Economic restrictions fell and thoughts of the country's interests moved to the front of government policy. But first it was necessary to provide accommodations for the newcomers, a difficult problem to resolve given the cramped proportions of the city of Rio at that time.

Though large, it was comfortless and nothing like Portuguese palaces. As large as it was, it was not enough to accommodate everyone, so neighboring buildings were also requisitioned, such as the Carmelite Convent, the town hall, and even the jail.

To meet the needs of other nobles, and to install new government offices, innumerable small residences were hastily expropriated, their proprietors arbitrarily ejected, at times violently in the face of resistance.

Carlota Joaquina, for her part, preferred to settle on a farm near the beach of Botafogo , continuing her habit of living apart from her husband.

The city, which at that time had about 70, inhabitants, saw itself transformed overnight. The additional populace, full of new requirements, imposed a new organization in the supply of food and other consumer goods, including luxury items.

It took years for the Portuguese to settle in, causing years of chaos in the daily life of Rio; rents doubled, taxes rose, and food was in short supply, requisitioned by the imported nobility.

This soon dispelled popular enthusiasm over the prince regent's arrival. The very shape of the city began to change, with the construction of innumerable new residences, villas and other buildings, and various improvements to services and infrastructure.

Likewise, the presence of the court introduced new standards of etiquette, new fashions and new customs, including a new social stratification.

The long lines waiting to pay their respects and receive favors were a mix of nobles and commoners. The vulgarity of the manners, the familiarity of speech, the insistence of some, the prolixity of others, none of this bored him.

He seemed to forget that he was their master, and remember only that he was their father. The main hospital of the country is Hospital Ayres de Menezes.

Coat of arms. The invention of the white race Second ed. London: Verso. Themes in West Africa's history. Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku.

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A3o Known by the Liberals as the Usurperhe was King of Portugal between and That image is very varied, A3o rarely for good reason. Monarchs of Portugal. A3o had issue. Joseph I of Best Western London Queens Crystal Palace The residents offered to construct a luxurious palace as a home for the Postcode Gewinnzahlen family, but John declined and continued his voyage, having already announced to various nations his intention to make his capital at Rio de Janeiro. It was administered by Marshall William Carr Broser Gameswho governed with an iron fist. Diverse visual representations of John range from an overweight, oversized, sloppy appearance to a dignified and elegant character. Louis []. London: Verso. The liberal constitution to which the king had sworn loyalty was in effect only for a few months. Fromhe served as prince regent of Portugal and later, fromas prince regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarvesdue to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I.

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